Soviet IFF (Identification, friend or foe) systems

Cold War Airfields, by Bert Kondruss

Below I have summarized my research and knowledge about the Soviet/Russian IFF (Identification, friend or foe) systems “Kremniy” and “Parol”. The information originates from various sources, all of which are given below (see /1/, /2/ etc.). Since the sources go into detail at different topics and are difficult to access for technical and language reasons, I compiled all the important information for a basic understanding here.

IFF systems

IFF system Kremniy-2

IFF system Parol

Sources

/1/ http://www.radioscanner.ru/files/systems/file6947/
Description of SRO-2 und SRZO-2 in Russian language, in djvu format

/2/ http://forum.vardanank.org/ (offline)
Наземный Радиолокационный Запросчик НРЗ-4П «Пароль»: Excerpt from training material for the NRZ-4P (Russian language)
Armenian forum, registration required.

/3/ http://5ka.su/ref/war/0_object3060.htmls (offline)
НАЗЕМНЫЙ РАДИОЛОКАЦИОННИЙ ЗАПРОСЧИК IЛ24: Study about the interrogation unit 1L24 (Russian language)

/4/ www.flugzeugforum.de
Thread: Einsatz bei NVA-LSK, Freund Feind Kennung (German language)

/5/ www.nva-forum.de
Thread: Luftraumüberwachung, Nutzung Kennungsgeräte (German language)

/6/ http://www.studfiles.ru/dir/cat20/subj241/file8670/view92366.html
Шпоры по военке 4 курс VII семестр: Study which includes a description of the system Parol (Russian language)

/7/ www.radartutorial.eu
Extensive website about radar systems, describes Parol systems and the general principles of side lobe suppression (German and English language)

/8/ Raketen- und Waffentechnischer Dienst (RWD) der NVA
Website about the missile and weapons service within the command MB III of the East German forces (German language)
www.rwd-mb3.de/pages/kremni.htm Kremnij-2
www.rwd-mb3.de/pages/parol.htm Parol

/9/ http://nva-flieger.de/ffm.html
IFF at NVA-Flieger.de (German language)

/10/ DV 246/0/035 "Hydroakustische, visuelle, Funkmeß- und UKW-Freund-Feind-Kennung" (Volksmarine 1986)

/11/ 1. Durchführungsanordnung vom 09.02.1990 zur Ordnung 010/9/022 - Funkmeß-Kennungsordnung (LSK/LV 1990)

/12/ E.S., U.M.: „Wer ist hier Freund, und wer ist Feind“ Fliegerrevue 10/92 (German language)

/13/ The Soviet SRO-2/KHROM IFF Transponder
Central Intelligence Agency, July 1968
CIA-RDP78-03066R000400190001-6

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